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                                                                                                               2014
 
                       40TH ANNUAL UNIVERSITY OF MAINE AT PRESQUE ISLE FINE ART EUROPEAN ART STUDY TOUR ART/ENG 400
                              TO SCOTLAND, NORTHERN IRELAND AND THE REPUBLIC OF IRELAND
 
  Three credits are available for this Summer 2014 experience...
 
 
                                                                                     JUNE 2ND THROUGH JUNE 13TH  
 
 
  (For County friends, Students from Maine and New Brunswick and all Fellow Travelers)
  This tour includes all meals!  10 Dinners, 10 Full Breakfasts, 1 Lunch and 1 Set Tea with Scones
                                               at a Sheep Dog Farm...!      Good for us .                                                                                                                            
   DEPART BOSTON USA Logan Airport AER LINGUS Terminal E   June  02 2014  6:15 PM EI 136   ARRIVAL DUBLIN, REPUBLIC OF IRELAND 03 June 2014  05:15 AM. GMT.   Transfer TO  AER ERANN  EI 3220, ARRIVAL GLASGOW (Abbotsinch), SCOTLAND, UNITED KINGDOM  ARRIVAL  07:55 AM. GMT. 
(PLEASE ARRIVE LOGAN AIRPORT TERMINAL E  THREE HOURS AHEAD OF DEPARTURE.FOR THIS TOUR...) 
 
 RETURN: Dublin Airport AER LINGUS EI 139 JUNE 13, 2014  4:15 PM  ARRIVAL BOSTON LOGAN USA 6:10 PM the 13th of June.
 
 
                          
 
 
 Day 1 : Glasgow Highlights
Start our trip at Glasgow Airport with a group transfer to our hotel.  At 2:30 pm tour Glasgow, a city that flourished in Victorian times. Drive around George Square with its ornate City Chambers and nearby Glasgow Cathedral. Visit the Riverside Museum of Travel & Transport where the stunning modern building is filled with interesting collections of vintage cars, trains, buses and bicycles. Join our tour director and travel companions for a welcome drink before dinner. (D)

Day 2 : Loch Lomond & Loch Ness Cruise
Travel alongside the famous Loch Lomond, renowned for its unsurpassed beauty. Travel through the deep valley of Glen Coe, notorious for the Campbell massacre of the Clan Macdonald in 1692. Continue through Fort William and stop at the Spean Bridge Woollen Mill, which offers a good selection of quality Scottish goods. At Fort Augustus embark on a short cruise on Loch Ness to keep an eye out for “Nessie.” Continue to Nairn for a Scottish Highland evening.  .(B,D)

Day 3 : Culloden Battlefield & Ghost Tour
Visit the Culloden Visitor Centre to learn about the Battle of Culloden where Bonnie Prince Charlie was defeated by the British army in 1746. Drive to Blair Athol Distillery in Pitlochry to see how whisky is distilled and sample some. Continue south to Edinburgh and check in to your hotel, a few miles from the city and set in lovely grounds with a golf course. In the evening dine at the Heights Restaurant in Edinburgh. Then head off on a fun walking tour to discover the haunts of Edinburgh’s eccentric characters in the narrow streets of the old city. (B,D)

Day 4 : Edinburgh Castle & City Tour 
This morning an Edinburgh city guide will point out the principal sights of this capital city. Drive along the bustling Princes Street and through the gracious, wide streets of the 200-year-old Georgian New Town. Walk along part of the Royal Mile where compact medieval houses reach 11 floors tall. Visit Edinburgh Castle, which dominates the city and contains the Scottish Crown Jewels and the Stone of Scone. The balance of the day is free. Hmm... Play a round of golf at our Hotel? (B, D)

Day 5 : Titanic Belfast & Dublin 
Depart Edinburgh early this morning and drive south through Ayrshire and along the coast. At Cairnryan cross the Irish sea by  ferry to Larne. Drive to Belfast for a panoramic city tour followed by a visit to Titanic Belfast to learn about this famous liner through state-of-the-art displays. Drive south to Dublin and check in to our deluxe hotel, located in spacious grounds for Dinner.  (B, D)

Day 6 : Dublin & Canal Dinner Cruise
Tour central Dublin with a local guide to see public buildings, lovely parks and rows of Georgian houses with brightly-painted doorways. Walk through the campus of Trinity College to view the Book of Kells, an illuminated manuscript of the gospels dating from the 8th century. Enjoy the afternoon at leisure or take an independent open-top bus tour and visit either Guinness or Jameson. In the evening enjoy a canal dinner cruise with traditional Irish music aboard a former Guinness barge through central Dublin. (B,D)

Day 7 : Blarney Castle & Killarney
Travel through the midlands of Ireland, stopping for photos at the stately Rock of Cashel. Continue south to visit Blarney Castle and kiss the famous “Stone of Eloquence.” Also visit the Blarney Woollen Mills where you can find quality Irish-made goods. Drive into the mountainous countryside of County Kerry to Killarney, picturesquely set beside lakes and mountains. Check in to our hotel and relax before dinner. Afterwards you may like to explore some of Killarney’s famous “singing pubs." (B,D)

Day 8 : Ring of Kerry & Skellig Experience
Take a jaunting car ride to view Killarney at a leisurely pace. Then embark on the Ring of Kerry drive – a winding route with breathtaking sights of mountains and coastal views. Cross to Valencia Island by bridge to visit the Skellig Experience which describes the austere lives of early Christian monks on the nearby islands. Drive through Waterville and stop in Sneem to admire brightly-painted houses. Pause at Moll’s Gap for stunning views before returning to Killarney in time to relax before dinner. (B,D)

Day 9 : Cliffs of Moher & Bunratty Castle
Take a ferry ride across the River Shannon to reach the Cliffs of Moher, a spectacular wall of limestone that reaches 700 feet above the Atlantic Ocean. Check in to Bunratty Castle Hotel, close to Bunratty Castle and Folk Park. If you wish, you may visit the Folk Park, have a drink in the 200-year-old Durty Nelly’s Pub or shop at the Bunratty Mills. In the evening head to Bunratty Castle for a memorable medieval-style feast where the lords and ladies will serenade us with song and harp music, evocative of the Middle Ages. (B,D)

Day 10 : Dublin Extension via Galway
This morning drive to Rathbaun Farm to see traditional farming methods and cute farmyard animals roaming freely. Sample some home-baked scones with tea or coffee and take a panoramic tour around Galway. Drive to Dublin and check into a different hotel and you are free for independent activities . (B, D)

Day 11 : Tour Ends at Dublin Airport
Use our taxi transfer to reach Dublin Airport in time to check in for our flight home. (B)
Tour Map

  • Dinner & Walking Tour in Edinburgh
  • Dublin Canal Cruise Dinner & Live Music
  • Bunratty Castle Medieval Banquet
  • Culloden Battlefield
  • Cliffs of Moher
  • Jaunting Car Ride
All This Included
  • Airport transfers at start and end of tour
  • Sightseeing by luxury coach
  • Professional tour director
  • 10 nights in hotels listed
  • Full breakfast daily (B) except on day 1
  • 10 dinners (D) including: Scottish Highland Evening, Heights Restaurant in Edinburgh, Dublin Canal Cruise dinner and live music, Bunratty Castle Medieval Banquet, 6 table d'hote dinners
  • Welcome get-together drink
  • Tours of Glasgow, Edinburgh, Belfast and Dublin
  • Loch Ness scenic cruise
  • Whisky tasting & tour of Blair Athol Distillery
  • Edinburgh ghost walking tour
  • Ferries from Scotland to Ireland and across the River Shannon
  • Tea and scones at Rathbaun Farm
  • Dublin open-top bus tour with a visit and drink at Guinness Storehouse or Old Jameson Distillery
  • Visits and admissions to Riverside Museum of Transport & Travel, Spean Bridge Woollen Mill, Culloden Battlefield Visitor Centre, Edinburgh Castle, Titanic Belfast, Book of Kells at Trinity College, Blarney Castle, Blarney Woollen Mills, Skellig Experience, and Cliffs of Moher
  • Deluxe carry-on backpack, ticket wallet, luggage tags & strap
  • All local taxes, hotel service charges & porterage for one suitcase per person
Accommodations on this Tour
Glasgow: Glasgow Thistle Hotel
Nairn: Newton Hotel
Inverness: Columba Hotel
Edinburgh: Marriott Dalmahoy Hotel
Dublin: Royal Marine  Hotel
Killarney: Killarney Avenue Hotel
Bunratty: Bunratty Castle Hotel
Dublin: Maldron Hotel Cardiff Lane Dublin
 
 Go to my LINKS to view our Hotels.........
 
                                             ALL INCLUSIVE COST FOR THIS 2014 FINE ART TOUR EXPERIENCE 
                                              $3395.00  
 Phone Professor of Fine Art Clifton Boudman 207-455 8096  leave message....or  Doug at Cyr Travel 1800 437 0440 or 316-6115 for immediate Bookings.                                     Caution! This Fine Art tour has limited seating for 2014..
 
          "Best to us!!!"
 
  or my website www.cliftonboudman.com.
 
       YOUR INDIVIDUAL KIT SUGGESTIONS
 
                     PASSPORT- keep it with you at all times or in your room safe....  have second copy of passport numbers  stashed.....                                                                     
                          You will always need passport  to exchange monies at Bank or Hotel Desk...$ American Dollars can not be used in any of                                     our travels. Exchange your Dollars to local currency. Debit or Credit Cards are accepted in most venues. (Check to
                                make sure home bank or credit union allows their cards to be used outside of America). My wife purchased a passport pouch from LL Bean that she wears under her jacket or other outerwear. You might be able to find one at Walmart.  Note: Travelers Checks are not the way to go anymore!
 
                                 CAUTION:   Do not leave anything behind in you rooms....You will never get it back!                                                                                                        

                            For charging I pad, cell phone, camera, charger or any other device you will need a UK/British adapter...                about $2.20 on Amazon. Here's the link:     
                             
                        http://www.amazon.com/CVID-UK-Plug-Universal-Plug-Adapter/dp/B000G1EWZ2/ref=sr_1_1?                       ie=UTF8&qid=1393095911&sr=8-1&keywords=electrical+adaptors+for+britain               

                        All Meals are included: Full Scottish and Irish Breakfasts and all evening Dinners. Occasional small lunches if you     want (Tea and Toast maybe) are not included as we travel by Motor coach....

BAGGAGE SIZES:     One only -Checked- Bag Boston  through to Glasgow, Scotland: MAX WEIGHT! 50lbs,  MAX size  inches= height+ width + length. 60 inches, about a 25 inch roller bag. 

One only-Take on- Bag Boston through to Glasgow, Scotland: MAX WEIGHT!  14lbs, MAX size                                                                         inches= height+ width+ length 16 inches X 10 inches X 7 inches.

                                                                                                                  

CURRENCIES: 

In Scotland and Northern Ireland - BPS £ pounds Sterling  1£ Sterling= $ 1.66 US. 

  The currency of the UK is the pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), subdivided into 100 pence (singular: penny). Coins of 1p, 2p, 5p, 10p, 20p, 50p, £1 and £2 and banknotes of £5, £10, £20, and £50 value are frequently used. Major Credit Cards are widely accepted in hotels, restaurants and shops.

The varius British Coins: 1p, 2p, 5p, 10p, 20p, 50p, £1, £2.

  In Republic of Ireland - EURO €: 1€  = $ 1.37 US.  

 

                                                                                 One Euro (€) has 100 Cent (c) and coins are available in denominations of 1 c, 2 c, 5 c (all copper), 10 c, 20 c, 50 c (all golden), € 1 and € 2 (silver with gold). While the design of the side bearing the numerals is standardized throughout the Eurozone the reverse is of local design, Irish Euros bearing a harp. Non-Irish Euro coins are legal tender.

                            TRAVEL KIT 

 

mini umbrella

  comfortable shoes

several trousers

  2 turtlenecks

  2 layered jackets

  pair gloves

 scarf   

eyeglasses

 

handkerchiefs, cotton swabs, toothbrush, toothpaste, eyedrops, 2 washcloths, flip flops, nail clippers, copy of personal prescriptions, pills, advil  deodorant, shades, socks, something black for evening dinners, camera, charger, sd cards, UK adapter, headphones, paperback read, iPad, iPhone, with cords for each, several tops, bermuda shorts, antiseptic travel wipes, bandages, small note book, pencil, hand cream, razor, teabags, shaving cream, perfume, tiny sewing kit, extra plastic zip bags, comb, hair gel, hat, puff, money belt if you like (Eagle Creek is a plastic web belt), You won't have to take it off at security...   (think mini sizes)    (pack... leave one third home).

                                   POLITICS- SPORTS- HISTORY- PERSONALITIES        'A PRIMER'

  A prominent issue in Scotland in current times is the issue of Scottish independence, that is the creation of an independent Scotland outside the United Kingdom. The pro-independence Scottish government plans to ask the people of Scotland, 'Should Scotland be an independent country?', in a referendum on 18 September 2014. The SNPand the Scottish Greens will campaign in favour of independence, whereas the Labour, Conservative, and Liberal Democrat parties will campaign to maintain Scotland's role within the United Kingdom.   The party with the largest number of seats in the Scottish Parliament is the Scottish National Party which campaigns for Scottish independence. The current First Minister is Alex Salmond of the SNP who leads a majority government as of 5 May 2011 elections.  2014 This September the Scottish people will vote to become independent from England.....

Scotland entered into a political union with England in 1707, and since then has had representation in the British parliament. Currently, 59 Members of Parliament (MPs) represent Scottish constituencies at Westminster, and issues such as the constitutionforeign affairsdefencesocial securitypensions, issues of medical ethics, and fiscal, economic and monetary policy are decided on at Westminster. In 1999, an 129-member Scottish Parliament was established in Edinburgh, which has power to make laws over agriculture, education, environment, health, local government and justice. In the UK government, Scottish affairs are represented by the Secretary of State for Scotland, currently Michael Moore MP, and the Scottish Government is headed by a First Minister, who is the leader of the political party with the most support in the Scottish Parliament, currently Alex Salmond MSP. The head of state in Scotland is the British monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II (since 1952). As the UK is part of the European Union, Scotland also elects 6 Members to sit in the European Parliament.

Scotland can best be described as having a multi-party system. In the Scottish Parliament, the centre-left pro-independence Scottish National Party (SNP) is the party which forms government, currently holding a majority of seats in the parliament (65 out of 129). Opposition parties include the Scottish Labour Party (centre-left, social democratic), the Scottish Conservative Party (centre-rightconservative), the Scottish Liberal Democrats (centristsocial liberal), and the Scottish Green Party (centre-left,environmentalist). Elections are held once every four years, with 73 Members being elected to represent constituencies, and the remaining 56 elected via a system of proportional representation. At Westminster, Scotland is represented by 12 MPs in the current coalition government (11 Liberal Democrats and 1 Conservative), 41 MPs in the Opposition Labour Party, and 6 MPs for the Scottish National Party.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         The Scottish Premiership is the top division of the Scottish Professional Football League, the league competition for professional football clubs in Scotland. The Scottish Premiership was established in July 2013, after the Scottish Professional Football League was formed by a merger of the Scottish Premier League and Scottish Football League.   Teams receive three points for a win and one point for a draw. No points are awarded for a loss. Teams are ranked by total points, then goal difference, and then goals scored. At the end of each season, the club with the most points is crowned league champion. If points are equal, the goal difference and then goals scored determine the winner.                                                                                                                           If you like, get to know at least who has won the 2014 cup.....                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     The modern game of Golf originated in Scotland, where the first written record of golf is James II's banning of the game in 1457, as an unwelcome distraction to learning archery.[7] To many golfers, the Old Course at St Andrews, a links course dating to before 1574, is considered to be a site of pilgrimage.[8] Golf is documented as being played on Musselburgh Links, East Lothian, Scotland as early as 2 March 1672, which is certified as the oldest golf course in the world by Guinness World Records.[9][10] The oldest surviving rules of golf were compiled in March 1744 for the Company of Gentlemen Golfers, later renamed The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers, which was played at Leith, Scotland. The world's oldest golf tournament in existence, and golf's first major, is The Open Championship, which was first played on 17 October 1860 at Prestwick Golf Club, in Ayrshire, Scotland.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Go To: www.scotland.org   Wonderful site to explore....      

  NORTHERN IRELAND/ ULSTER:                                                                       Ulster has a population of just over 2 million people and an area of 21,552 square kilometres (8,321 sq mi). Its biggest city, Belfast, has an urban population of over half a million inhabitants, making it the second-largest city in Ireland and the 10th largest urban area in the UK. Six of Ulster's nine countiesAntrimArmagh,DownFermanaghLondonderry and Tyrone, including the former parliamentary boroughs of Belfast and Londonderry, form Northern Ireland which remained part of the United Kingdom after the partition of Ireland in 1921. Three Ulster counties – CavanDonegal and Monaghan – form part of the Republic of Ireland. About half of Ulster's population lives in counties Antrim and Down. Across the nine counties, according to the aggregate UK 2011 Census for Northern Ireland, and Irish 2011 Census for counties Cavan, Donegal and Monaghan, there is a slim Catholic majority over Protestant (50.8% against 42.7%).Partition of Ireland, first mooted in 1912, was introduced with the enactment of the Government of Ireland Act 1920, which gave self-government/Home rule to six of Ulster's north-eastern counties within the UK. This was confirmed by the Anglo-Irish Treaty (6 December 1921). One of the primary stipulations of the treaty was the partition of Ireland into the UK dominion of the Irish Free State (now the sovereign Republic of Ireland) and the home rule institution of Northern Ireland. Hostilities in the Irish War of Independence formally ceased on 11 July 1921. Low-level violence, however, continued in Ulster, causing Michael Collinston order a boycott of Northern products in protest at attacks on the Catholic/Nationalist community. When the Irish Free State came into existence in 1922, the Northern Ireland Parliament (already in existence) was given the option to 'opt out', which it did.

Following the Anglo Irish treaty, the exact border between the two UK dominions of the Irish Free State and Northern Ireland was decided by the Boundary Commission in 1925, in which the line was drawn around six of Ulster's nine counties.

Electorally, voting in the six Northern Ireland counties of Ulster tends to follow religious or sectarian lines; noticeable religious demarcation does not exist in the South Ulster counties of Cavan and Monaghan in the Republic of Ireland. County Donegal is largely a Catholic county, but with a large Protestant minority. Generally, Protestants in Donegal vote for the political party Fine Gael("Family of the Irish").  However, religious sectarianism in politics has largely disappeared from the rest of the Republic of Ireland. This was illustrated when Erskine H. Childers, a Church of Ireland member and Teachta Dála (TD, a member of the lower house of the National Parliament) who had represented Monaghan, won election as President after having served as a long-term minister under Fianna Fáil Taoisigh Éamon de ValeraSeán Lemassand Jack Lynch.

The Orange Order freely organises in counties Donegal, Cavan and Monaghan, with several Orange parades taking place throughout County Donegal each year. The only major Orange Order march in theRepublic of Ireland takes place every July in the village of Rossnowlagh, near Ballyshannon, in the south of County Donegal.

As of 2006, Northern Ireland has eight Catholic members of parliament (of a total of 18 from the whole of Northern Ireland) in the British House of Commons at Westminster; and the other three counties have one Protestant T.D. of the ten it has elected to Dáil Éireann, the Lower House of the Oireachtas, the parliament of the Republic of Ireland. At present (August 2007) County Donegal sends six T.D.'s to Dáil Éireann. The county is divided into two constituencies: Donegal North-East and Donegal South-West, each with three T.D.'s. County Cavan and County Monaghan form the one constituency called Cavan-Monaghan, which sends five T.D.'s to the Dáil (one of whom is a Protestant).

The historic Flag of Ulster served as the basis for the Ulster Banner (often referred to as the Flag of Northern Ireland), which was the

flag of the Government of Northern Ireland until the proroguing of the Stormont parliament in 1973.

REPUBLIC OF IRELAND: The whole island of Ireland formed a constituent part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 1801 to 1922. For almost all of this period, Ireland was governed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom in London through its Dublin Castle administration in Ireland. Ireland faced considerable economic difficulties in the 19th century, including the Great Famine of the 1840s. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw a vigorous campaign for Irish Home Rule. While legislation enabling Irish Home Rule was eventually passed, vigorous and armed opposition from Irish unionists, particularly in Ulster, opposed it. Proclamation was shelved for the duration following the outbreak of the Great War. By 1918, however, moderate nationalism had been eclipsed by militant republican separatism. Ulster Unionism was adamantly opposed to its implementation.

Ireland underwent major highs and lows economically during the 19th century; from economic booms during the Napoleonic Wars and in the late 19th century (when it experienced a surge in economic growth unmatched until the 'Celtic Tiger' boom of the 1990s), to severe economic downturns and a series of famines, the last threatening in 1879. The worst of these was the Great Irish Famine (1845–1849), in which about one million people died and another million emigrated. 

Ireland's economic problems were in part the result of the small size of Irish landholdings and a large increase in the population in the years before the famine. In particular, both the law and social tradition provided for subdivision of land, with all sons inheriting equal shares in a farm, meaning that farms became so small that only one crop, potatoes, could be grown in sufficient amounts to feed a family. Furthermore, many estates, from whom the small farmers rented, were poorly run by absentee landlords and in many cases heavily mortgaged. Enclosures of land since the start of the 19th century had also exacerbated the problem, and the extensive grazing of cattle had contributed to the smaller plots of land available to tenants to raise their crops.

In the new Whig government in Britain (from 1846), Charles Trevelyan became assistant secretary to the Treasury, and largely responsible for the British government's response to the famine in Ireland. When potato blight hit the island in 1845, much of the rural population was left without food. Unfortunately at this time, the then Prime Minister Lord John Russell adhered to a strict laissez-faire economic policy, which maintained that further state intervention would have the whole country dependent on hand-outs, and that what was needed was for economic viability to be encouraged. Despite a net surplus of food produced locally in Ireland, it was exportedto England and elsewhere. Public works schemes were set up but proved inadequate, and the situation became catstrophic when epidemics of typhoid, cholera and dysentery took hold. Enormous sums were raised all over the world by charities (Native Americans sent supplies, as did the Ottoman Empire, while Queen Victoria personally gave the equivalent in modern money of €70,000).  However the inadequate nature of the British government's initiatives led to a problem becoming a catastrophe; the class of cottiers or farm labourers was virtually wiped out.

Emigration was not uncommon in Ireland in the years preceding the famine. Between 1815–1845, Ireland had already established itself as the major supplier of overseas labour to Great Britain and America.[7] However, emigration reached a peak during the famine, particularly in the years 1846–1855.  The famine also saw increased emigration to Canada and assisted passages to Australia. Because of ongoing political tensions between the US and the UK, the large and influential Irish American diaspora created, financed and encouraged the Irish independence movement. In 1858, the Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB, also known as the Fenians) was founded as a secret society dedicated to armed rebellion against the British. A related organisation formed in New York was known as Clan na Gael, which several times organised raids into the British Province of Canada. While the Fenians had a considerable presence in rural Ireland, theFenian Rising launched in 1867 was a fiasco and was contained by police rather than the British military. Moreover, wider support for Irish republicanism, in the face of harsh laws against sedition, was minimal in Ireland in the period; as late as the 1860s, mass meetings of constitutional nationalists ended with the singing of "God Save the Queen" while royal visits often drew cheering crowds.

Ireland underwent major highs and lows economically during the 19th century; from economic booms during the Napoleonic Wars and in the late 19th century (when it experienced a surge in economic growth unmatched until the 'Celtic Tiger' boom of the 1990s), to severe economic downturns and a series of famines, the last threatening in 1879. The worst of these was the Great Irish Famine (1845–1849), in which about one million people died and another million emigrated. 

Ireland's economic problems were in part the result of the small size of Irish landholdings and a large increase in the population in the years before the famine. In particular, both the law and social tradition provided for subdivision of land, with all sons inheriting equal shares in a farm, meaning that farms became so small that only one crop, potatoes, could be grown in sufficient amounts to feed a family.  Furthermore, many estates, from whom the small farmers rented, were poorly run by absentee landlords and in many cases heavily mortgaged. Enclosures of land since the start of the 19th century had also exacerbated the problem, and the extensive grazing of cattle had contributed to the smaller plots of land available to tenants to raise their crops.

In the new Whig government in Britain (from 1846), Charles Trevelyan became assistant secretary to the Treasury, and largely responsible for the British government's response to the famine in Ireland. When potato blight hit the island in 1845, much of the rural population was left without food. Unfortunately at this time, the then Prime Minister Lord John Russell adhered to a strict laissez-faire economic policy, which maintained that further state intervention would have the whole country dependent on hand-outs, and that what was needed was for economic viability to be encouraged.   Despite a net surplus of food produced locally in Ireland, it was exportedto England and elsewhere. Public works schemes were set up but proved inadequate, and the situation became catstrophic when epidemics of typhoid, cholera and dysentery took hold. Enormous sums were raised all over the world by charities (Native Americans sent supplies, as did the Ottoman Empire, while Queen Victoriapersonally gave the equivalent in modern money of €70,000). However the inadequate nature of the British government's initiatives led to a problem becoming a catastrophe; the class of cottiers or farm labourers was virtually wiped out.

Emigration was not uncommon in Ireland in the years preceding the famine. Between 1815–1845, Ireland had already established itself as the major supplier of overseas labour to Great Britain and America. However, emigration reached a peak during the famine, particularly in the years 1846–1855. The famine also saw increased emigration to Canada and assisted passages to Australia.  Because of ongoing political tensions between the US and the UK, the large and influential Irish American diaspora created, financed and encouraged the Irish independence movement. In 1858, the Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB, also known as the Fenians) was founded as a secret society dedicated to armed rebellion against the British. A related organisation formed in New York was known as Clan na Gael, which several times organised raids into the British Province of Canada. While the Fenians had a considerable presence in rural Ireland, theFenian Rising launched in 1867 was a fiasco and was contained by police rather than the British military. Moreover, wider support for Irish republicanism, in the face of harsh laws against sedition, was minimal in Ireland in the period; as late as the 1860s, mass meetings of constitutional nationalists ended with the singing of "God Save the Queen" while royal visits often drew cheering crowds.[

Ireland underwent major highs and lows economically during the 19th century; from economic booms during the Napoleonic Wars and in the late 19th century (when it experienced a surge in economic growth unmatched until the 'Celtic Tiger' boom of the 1990s), to severe economic downturns and a series of famines, the last threatening in 1879. The worst of these was the Great Irish Famine (1845–1849), in which about one million people died and another million emigrated.[4]

Ireland's economic problems were in part the result of the small size of Irish landholdings and a large increase in the population in the years before the famine. In particular, both the law and social tradition provided for subdivision of land, with all sons inheriting equal shares in a farm, meaning that farms became so small that only one crop, potatoes, could be grown in sufficient amounts to feed a family. Furthermore, many estates, from whom the small farmers rented, were poorly run by absentee landlords and in many cases heavily mortgaged. Enclosures of land since the start of the 19th century had also exacerbated the problem, and the extensive grazing of cattle had contributed to the smaller plots of land available to tenants to raise their crops.

In the new Whig government in Britain (from 1846), Charles Trevelyan became assistant secretary to the Treasury, and largely responsible for the British government's response to the famine in Ireland. When potato blight hit the island in 1845, much of the rural population was left without food. Unfortunately at this time, the then Prime Minister Lord John Russell adhered to a strict laissez-faire economic policy, which maintained that further state intervention would have the whole country dependent on hand-outs, and that what was needed was for economic viability to be encouraged.  Despite a net surplus of food produced locally in Ireland, it was exportedto England and elsewhere.[6] Public works schemes were set up but proved inadequate, and the situation became catstrophic when epidemics of typhoid, cholera and dysentery took hold. Enormous sums were raised all over the world by charities (Native Americans sent supplies, as did the Ottoman Empire, while Queen Victoriapersonally gave the equivalent in modern money of €70,000).  However the inadequate nature of the British government's initiatives led to a problem becoming a catastrophe; the class of cottiers or farm labourers was virtually wiped out.

Emigration was not uncommon in Ireland in the years preceding the famine. Between 1815–1845, Ireland had already established itself as the major supplier of overseas labour to Great Britain and America. However, emigration reached a peak during the famine, particularly in the years 1846–1855. The famine also saw increased emigration to Canada and assisted passages to Australia. Because of ongoing political tensions between the US and the UK, the large and influential Irish American diaspora created, financed and encouraged the Irish independence movement. In 1858, the Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB, also known as the Fenians) was founded as a secret society dedicated to armed rebellion against the British. A related organisation formed in New York was known as Clan na Gael, which several times organised raids into the British Province of Canada. While the Fenians had a considerable presence in rural Ireland, theFenian Rising launched in 1867 was a fiasco and was contained by police rather than the British military. Moreover, wider support for Irish republicanism, in the face of harsh laws against sedition, was minimal in Ireland in the period; as late as the 1860s, mass meetings of constitutional nationalists ended with the singing of "God Save the Queen" while royal visits often drew cheering crowds.    

 

 

 

The Irish state came into being in 1922 as the Irish Free State, a dominion of the British Commonwealth, having seceded from the United Kingdom under the Anglo-Irish Treaty. It comprises 26 of the island of Ireland's 32 counties. The 1937 constitution renamed the state Ireland. In 1949 it explicitly became a republic, definitively ending its tenuous membership of the British Commonwealth. In 1973 it joined the European Communities.

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